The Ottawa ankle rules and the "Buffalo" rule, part 1: Overview and background
Athletic Therapy Today
There is strong evidence to suggest that the OAR are a valid and effective clinical tool in predicting fractures of the ankle and midfoot. Their clinical effectiveness is improved by incorporating the BR. Implementing the rules can result in reducing the number of unnecessary radiographs. Clinicians making decisions on referrals of athletes to emergency rooms for possible radiographs can use the OAR with the BR. Over time, the OAR are nearly 100 % sensitive in predicting fractures of the ankle and midfoot. The addition of the BR has improved both sensitivity and specificity. The OAR have demonstrated a balance between sensitivity to fracture and specificity that should lead clinicians to feel confident in using them. The specific practical applications of the OAR and BR rules will be presented in detail along with general issues and problems with implementing the rules in the Part 2 of this report.
Original Publication Date
DOI of published version
Northrup, Rebecca L.; Ragan, Brian G.; and Bell, Gerald W., "The Ottawa ankle rules and the "Buffalo" rule, part 1: Overview and background" (2005). Faculty Publications. 3045.