Culture, self-construal, and leisure theory and practice
Benefits, Culture, Discrimination, Intrinsic motivation, Leisure, Self-construal, Theory
Journal of Leisure Research
According to Markus and Kitayama (1991), although European North Americans are more likely to have independent self-construals (and therefore to value being unique, expressing one's inner attributes, etc.), people in or from Asia, Africa, and Southern Europe are more likely to have interdependent selfconstruals (and therefore to value belonging, maintaining harmony, etc.). The type of self-construal a person has affects his or her emotions, cognitions, and motivations. In the case of intrinsic motivation, for example, it is often put forth that the key factor affecting this variable is autonomy/personal choice. Recent research suggests, however, that while this may be true for independent selves, relatedness may be more important for interdependent selves. Because intrinsic motivation and autonomy/personal choice are present in many leisure theories, and leisure theories often influence leisure practice, the concept of selfconstrual may have great import for our field. In order to support this proposition, this article: (a) describes what self-construal is and how it affects intrinsic motivation; (b) reviews some of the major leisure theories that include intrinsic motivation and discusses how the above may affect them; (c) outlines the implications of not incorporating self-construal into leisure practice, using benefits based programming (Rossman & Schlatter, 2000) as an exemplar; and (d) examines some of the conceptual and methodological concerns associated with self-construal. Copyright 2005 National Recreation and Park Association.
Original Publication Date
DOI of published version
Walker, Gordon J.; Deng, Jinyang; and Dieser, Rodney B., "Culture, self-construal, and leisure theory and practice" (2005). Faculty Publications. 3042.