Exploring Social Carrying Capacity Based On Perceived Levels Of Crowding: A Case Study Of Hanauma Bay, Hawaii
Coastal and marine recreation, Crowding, Social carrying capacity
Tourism in Marine Environments
This study explored the concept of social carrying capacity to identify an acceptable use level for a marine park reserve. Many studies have examined a social capacity of the outdoor recreation sites, whereas few studies have been conducted in the ocean recreation settings. The study attempts to identify a social carrying capacity of a marine park based on the users' evaluation of crowding. Based on the perceived level of crowding, the results suggest that the use level of Hanauma Bay (the Bay) is exceeding capacity. This article provides suggested use levels to implement a social carrying capacity management system. Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
School of Health, Physical Education, and Leisure Services
Original Publication Date
DOI of published version
Lankford, Samuel V.; Inui, Yuka; and Whittle, Amber, "Exploring Social Carrying Capacity Based On Perceived Levels Of Crowding: A Case Study Of Hanauma Bay, Hawaii" (2008). Faculty Publications. 2433.