Attachment to Peers and School: Longitudinal Moderators of the Relation Between Caregiver Psychological Distress and Adolescent Hopelessness
Attachment to peers, Attachment to school, Black American, Caregiver’s mental health, Hopelessness, Youth
Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Research has yet to determine how relationships outside of the family system may buffer negative outcomes associated with hopelessness among racial minority youth. In a sample of Black American youth (N = 512; 49% females) and their parents or caregivers, this study used longitudinal growth models to explore whether youth relationships (attachment to peers and attachment to school) moderated the association between caregiver distress (depressive symptoms and traumatic stress), and youth hopelessness. Adolescents’ gender was examined to determine if there were gender differences present in these associations. Four linear growth models showed a significant change in levels of hopelessness over time for youth and a significant positive relation between caregiver distress and youth level of hopelessness. Attachment to peers and attachment to school did not equally moderate the relation between caregiver psychological distress and youth hopelessness. The type of caregiver distress had a differential effect on youth hopelessness in the context of the moderation models and based on gender. The type of caregiver distress had a differential effect on youth hopelessness in the context of the moderation models and based on gender. Implications for the importance of non-familial attachments among Black American youth with distressed parents are discussed.
Department of Social Work
Center for Educational Transformation
Original Publication Date
DOI of published version
UNI ScholarWorks, Rod Library, University of Northern Iowa
Hooper, Lisa M.; Lee, Sei Young; Tomek, Sara; Jaggers, Jeremiah W.; Kim, Grace; and Church, Wesley T., "Attachment to Peers and School: Longitudinal Moderators of the Relation Between Caregiver Psychological Distress and Adolescent Hopelessness" (2021). Faculty Publications. 196.