Observations on mixed colonies have shown that Formica fossaceps and Formica obscuriventris clivia both live as slaves for Formica rubicunda together with Formica cinerea montana and Formica fusca. Formica obscuriventris clivia may start its colonies as a temporary social parasite of fusca.
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science
© Copyright 1959 by the Iowa Academy of Science, Inc.
King, R. L. and Sallee, R. M.
"Formica fossaceps Buren and Formica obscuriventris clivia Creighton as Slaves of Formica rubicunda Emery,"
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science, 66(1), 472-473.
Available at: https://scholarworks.uni.edu/pias/vol66/iss1/64