Although many species of fishes normally congregate in schools, the majority of these fishes will successfully survive in an individual existence. However, the question has been raised as to what extent the operant behavior of schooling fishes remains unchanged when they are isolated from the group. Experiments by Welty (1934) have indicated that goldfish learn mazes more rapidly when grouped than when isolated. Further, he found that motor responses are retained by a group better than by an individual. Breder and Halpern (1946) point out that fishes will sometimes not feed until they see a companion feeding. In order to further explore this question an experiment was designed to study operant discrimination of a group of fishes behaving both as a school and as individuals.
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science
©1958 Iowa Academy of Science, Inc.
Jackson, Bill B.
"Operant Discrimination in the Schooling Fish, Brachydanio rerio,"
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science, 65(1), 393-397.
Available at: https://scholarworks.uni.edu/pias/vol65/iss1/59