Document Type



Diseases of the immature stages of the honey bee, i.e. the brood, cause large annual losses in bees, honey, and equipment. It would be bad enough if such losses were reflected only in the increased cost of producing honey, but far more serious is the decreased yield of at least 50 orchard, garden and farm crops. These are crops such as apples, cucumbers and the clovers which require or benefit from the pollinating services of the honey bee. Two types of brood diseases, both known as foulbrood, had been recognized prior to 1900, but were inadequately distinguished until White (1907, 1912) determined their respective pathogens. Since one of these diseases had previously been under study in Europe, he called it European, and the other, American foulbrood. For centuries the disease now known as American foulbrood has been the most serious scourge of the honey bee. Distribution is practically world-wide and no sizeable region in the United States is free from its depredations (Dadant, 1937). Although both foulbroods commonly produce disagreeable odors, the term foulbrood, doubtless came into use because of the outstanding and characteristically foul odor given off by American foul brood. This probably is the malady which Aristotle (Cresswell translation, 1907) said, "causes a strong smell in the hives".

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Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science





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©1953 Iowa Academy of Science, Inc.



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