Document Type



Except for the annotated list published by Cratty in "The Iowa Flora" (1933), there has been no publication dealing with the entire family Boraginaceae in Iowa. · On the basis of only the Iowa State College herbarium, Cratty listed thirteen species of the family known to occur in the state; three of these were indicated as introductions from Europe or Asia. Prior to the appearance of Cratty's list, certain species of the family had been included in local and county lists,1 and in Cratty's paper on the immigrant flora of Iowa ( 1929), while Conard and Clarke ( 1929) had discussed the differentiation of Lithospermum canescense and L. gmelini (the L. croceum of the present paper). Four species, not listed by Cratty ( 1933), had been reported for the state prior to the publication of "The Iowa Flora;" these are: (a) Hackelia americana (A. Gray) Fern., reported by Arthur (1878) as Echinospermum deflexum and by Somes (1913) as Lappula deflexa var. americana; (b) Lithospermum arvense L., reported by Arthur ( 1884), Halstead ( 1888), Barnes, Reppert and Miller ( 1901), Greene ( 1907), and more recently by Goodman ( 1940) and Augustine (1941); (c) Lithospermum officinale L., reported by Fink (1897); and (d) Symphytum officinale L., reported by Diehl (1916) and Hagge (1929). Cratty (1934), in a second paper on the immigrant flora of Iowa, added Borago officinalis L. to the state list. Six other species have been reported for Iowa, but we have been unable to find specimens of them; they are placed, therefore, in the list of Excluded Species on page 147 of the present paper.

Publication Date


Journal Title

Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science





First Page


Last Page



©1948 Iowa Academy of Science, Inc.



File Format




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.