Gas bubbles which were formed by passing nitrogen through a glass capillary into liquids were studied by means of stroboscopic frequency measurements, rate of gas flow, and instantaneous ( approx. 10-5 sec. exposure) photographs. The size of the bubbles was determined both from the frequency and rate of gas flow and from measurements of the photographic images of the bubbles. The following pure liquids and solutions were used at room temperature: ethyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, aniline, acetone, benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, methyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, ether, and three aqueous solutions of ethyl alcohol. The pressures used were varied from the lowest pressure which would give a steady stream of bubbles (approx. 0.6 cm. of Hg) up to about 2.3 cm. of Hg. Capillary diameters were from 0.0137 to 0.0341 cm. The bubble frequency was practically constant (45-50 bubbles/sec.) for the pure liquids studied at all pressures and capillary diameters used. It follows therefore that the size of each bubble (cm3) is directly proportional to the rate of gas flow (cm3/sec.) and is independent of the properties of the liquid and the capillary diameter in the range of experimental conditions used. Higher pressures, larger capillary diameters, and lower surface tension give larger bubbles as a result of the increased rate of flow. In the case of 20.2, 70.0, and 40.7 per cent aqueous solutions of ethyl alcohol the bubble frequency was greater than with pure liquids and showed a much greater variation with pressure.
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science
©1939 Iowa Academy of Science, Inc.
Eversole, W. G. and Wagner, G. H.
"The Formation of Gas Bubbles in Liquids,"
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science, 46(1), 193-194.
Available at: https://scholarworks.uni.edu/pias/vol46/iss1/29