About three miles east of Independence, Iowa, there are cross-bedded, water-laid deposits of sand and gravel of more than usual interest. The beds in question occur near the line of the Illinois Central railway. The railway company indeed has opened up the beds and developed a great gravel pit from which many thousands of carloads have been taken and used as ballast along the line.
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Sciences
©1895 Iowa Academy of Science, Inc.
"The Buchanan Gravels: An Interglacial Deposit in Buchanan County, Iowa,"
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science, 3(1), 58-60.
Available at: https://scholarworks.uni.edu/pias/vol3/iss1/15