One of the basic precepts in science teaching is the Futility Factor: no laboratory investigation is ever a complete failure . . . it can always serve as a bad example. There will always be some kind of result when students do investigations. Whether the outcome is expected or not is another question. Occasionally in a classroom investigation the "wrong" outcome is the only result. At times like this we doubt the results obtained even by the authors of the investigation.
Iowa Science Teachers' Journal
© Copyright 1969 by the Iowa Academy of Science
Thompson, John F.
"Expected Student Outcomes in Earth Science Investigations,"
Iowa Science Teachers Journal: Vol. 6
, Article 3.
Available at: https://scholarworks.uni.edu/istj/vol6/iss4/3