Human life expectancy during the time of the Roman Empire was approximately 28 years. In 1990, global life expectancy had increased to 65 years. The advances in life expectancy in the 20th century were remarkable by any standard. Although many factors contributed to this enhanced life expectancy, including medical technologies, by far the largest proportion of the increase occurred as a consequence of economic growth, rising living standards and nutrition. Despite the large improvements in terms of life expectancy, significant health variations still remain between countries and across different socioeconomic classes with in countries. As the 20th century proceeded, a growing dichotomy existed between those who are healthy and have access to medical care and those who are not healthy and do not have access to such services. Moreover, evidence shows that such inequities in health and healthcare are increasing. The present paper will analyze the dynamics of shifts in health profile during the early period of the last century and describe the major determinants of inequities in health and healthcare at the international level. Challenges facing the reduction in inequalities in health and healthcare will be discussed.
International Journal of Global Health and Health Disparities
©2004 International Journal of Global Health and Health Disparities
Galal, Osman and De Vogli, Roberto
"Challenges for Reducing Inequities in Health and Healthcare for the 21st Century,"
International Journal of Global Health and Health Disparities, 3(1), 9-19.
Available at: https://scholarworks.uni.edu/ijghhd/vol3/iss1/3