Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


Sex role -- Taiwan; Self-esteem in adolescence;


The purpose of the study was to investigate different levels of self-esteem and attitude toward achievement in individuals of varying sex-role categories: masculinity, femininity, and androgyny. The subjects for this study were 125 Taiwanese college freshmen, 68 males and 57 females, at the Tunghai University in Taiwan. Three scales were used in this study: the Bem Sex-role Inventory, the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI), and the Attitude toward Achievement Inventory. The results of this study indicated that the masculinity-category subjects had both higher self-esteem and greater self-concept of ability toward achievement than the non-masculinity-category subjects. Also, there were statistically significant differences in academic achievement among the four sex categories favoring the masculine category. The results also showed that the androgyny-category subjects had a more positive attitude and a more internal attribution toward learning than their counterparts in the other categories. They were found to enjoy learning and feel pleased working hard in school.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations

First Advisor

Radhi H. Al-Mabuk


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Date Original


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