Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


Groups were first established in the public schools in the early 1900s. At this time, the group provided an environment in which to learn life skills and values rather than focusing on the group process (Gladding, 1995). There was a growth of groups in select schools during the 1910s, although the focus continued to be on individual counseling. In the 1930s, the focus of groups was on vocational and personal themes. They were often the responsibility of homeroom teachers. In these groups, the teacher was responsible for establishing friendly relationships and developing the right attitudes toward school, home, and the community in the students (Strange, 1935, as cited in Gladding, 1995). This group guidance approach to counseling was replaced with group counseling as a way to bring about behavioral changes in the late 1950s. More recently, group work has become more increasingly utilized in the school settings as a primary was to influence educational endeavors and social skills (Hudson, Doyle, & Venezia, 1991, as cited in Gladding, 1995). In addition, as professional associations continue to grow, more training and educational opportunities are being offered in group work.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Educational Leadership, Counseling, and Postsecondary Education

First Advisor

Terry Kottman

Second Advisor

Thadeus Rozecki


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Date Original


Object Description

1 PDF file (30 leaves)



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