Graduate Research Papers


Open Access Graduate Research Paper


Critical thinking--Study and teaching (Secondary); Literature--Study and teaching (Secondary);


This study presents a review of literature regarding critical thinking. Several definitions of critical thinking are compared and contrasted. Critical thinking is presented as a subset of higher-order thinking and affinities between critical thinking and other forms of higher-order thinking are examined. Questioning as a means of promoting critical thinking in high school literature classes is discussed from the perspective of reader-response theories.

Several questioning strategies that have the potential to promote critical thinking in high school literature classes are identified. These strategies are Questioning Circles, Questioning the Author, Design Conversations, Hierarchical Models of Questioning, Socratic Seminars, and Literature Circles. The role of the instructor in implementing these strategies is discussed. Recent research findings related to the implementation of these strategies in elementary and secondary education are presented. Considerations regarding the implementation of these questioning strategies in high school literature classes are provided.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations

First Advisor

Elana Joram


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Date Original


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1 PDF file (v, 46 pages)



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