Faculty Publications

Title

Soil sensitivity due to acid and heavy metal deposition in East Central Europe

Document Type

Article

Keywords

acid deposition, cadmium, heavy metals, soil contamination

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

Volume

85

Issue

2

First Page

737

Last Page

742

Abstract

Simultaneous soil acidification and deposition of heavy metals is a major concern for forest and agricultural soils of the Black Triangle region of East Central Europe including southern former East Germany, northern Bohemia of the Czech Republic, and southern Poland. The objective of this project was to develop historical and future projections of acid and heavy metal deposition to soils (As, Cd, Pb, Zn) and to produce a preliminary map of soil sensitivity to cadmium pollution and uptake by crops. Ultimately, we wish to assess the relative hazard and recovery times of soils to metals deposition in the region. Emission and deposition data bases obtained from several models developed at IIASA were linked using the Geographical Information System ARC/INFO to produce soil maps of sensitivity to cadmium mobility based on metals deposition, soil type, soil texture, organic matter content, and acid deposition. RAINS 6.1 (Alcamo et al., 1990) was utilized to produce maps of acid deposition for EMEP grids (150 km x 150 km). The largest amount of acid load is deposited in southern East Germany. Sulfur deposition in that area was 10-12 gS/m2/yr in 1990, and S+N deposition exceeded 8000 eq/ha/yr. But the "hot spot" for metals deposition is further to the east, in the Silesia area of southern Poland. The TRACE2 trajectory model of Alcamo, Bartnicki, and Olendrzynski (1992) was used to estimate cumulative metals deposition since 1955 with scenarios to 2010. Pb has improved over Europe since 1970 when depositions in the Ruhr River Valley of West Germany exceeded 60 mg/m2/yr. But cadmium deposition in southern Poland (Katowice and Krakow) has now accumulated to 60-70 mg/m2 by atmospheric deposition alone. During base case simulations from 1955-87, approximately 1.8 mg/kg Pb and 0.12 mg/kg Cd have been added to the mixed plow-layer of ∼30 cm. If these emissions continue indefinitely, the accumulation of metals will become problematic for agriculture and the food chain. © 1995 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Original Publication Date

12-1-1995

DOI of published version

10.1007/BF00476917

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