Uniformity of long-tailed Manakin songs from three localities in Costa Rica
Microgeographic variation in song is a well-documented consequence of song learning in many songbirds, but the relationship between song variation and development in the suboscines is poorly understood. Because learning appears to play a role in song development in Long-tailed Manakins (Chiroxiphia linearis), we wanted to find out whether they also exhibit microgeographic variation in song. We compared songs of Long-tailed Manakins from three localities in Costa Rica using multivariate analysis of variance and canonical discriminant analysis of five song variables. Differences among localities were not significant, and songs from the same localities did not cluster together in a canonical plot. This finding is similar to those observed in suboscine flycatchers whose songs are innate.
Original Publication Date
DOI of published version
Trainer, Jill M. and Parsons, Ryan J., "Uniformity of long-tailed Manakin songs from three localities in Costa Rica" (2001). Faculty Publications. 3568.