Faculty Publications


Green machining using graphene-based self-lubricating cutting tool – a preliminary investigation

Document Type



cutting force, Graphene, self-lubricating, surface roughness, Ti6Al4V, tool wear

Journal/Book/Conference Title

World Journal of Engineering


Purpose: Ti6Al4V is a commonly used titanium alloy with several applications in aerospace industry due to its excellent strength to weight ratio. But due to low thermal conductivity, it is categorized as “difficult to machine.” Though machinability can be improved with cutting fluids, it is not preferred due to associated problems. This study aims at eliminating the use of cutting fluid and finding an alternate solution to dry machining of Ti6Al4V. AlTiN coated tools provide good heat and oxidation resistance but have low lubricity. In the present work, graphene, which is known for lubricating properties, is added to the tools using five different methods (tool condition) to form graphene self-lubricated cutting tools. Design/methodology/approach: Graphene-based self-lubricating tools are prepared by using five methods: dip coating (10 dips and 30 dips); drop casting; and filling of micro/macroholes. Performance of these tools is evaluated in terms of cutting forces, surface roughness and tool wear by machining Ti6Al4V and comparing with conventional coated cutting tool. Findings: Self-lubricating tool with micro holes filled with graphene outperformed other tools and showed maximum decrease of 33.42% in resultant cutting forces, 35% in surface roughness (Ra) and 30% in flank wear compared to conventional cutting tool. Originality/value: Analysis of variance for all forces show that tool condition and machining time have significant influence on all components of cutting forces and resultant cutting forces.


Department of Technology

Original Publication Date


DOI of published version



UNI ScholarWorks, Rod Library, University of Northern Iowa