Faculty Publications


Analysis and prediction of casting defects using casting simulation

Document Type



Casting defects, Casting simulation, Metal penetration, Porosity, Predictive analysis, Veining

Journal/Book/Conference Title

71st World Foundry Congress: Advanced Sustainable Foundry, WFC 2014


Casting defects just don't happen. They usually occur with variations of critical variables in the sand metal system. Defects such as veining, metal penetration and dimensional inaccuracies can be directly correlated to specific physical properties and material conditions in the mold. Tests were conducted using currently available and newly developed equipment to accurately measure mechanical and physical properties of molding aggregates. These measurements were used to generate accurate dataset information for casting simulations and used to define the mechanisms of defect formations and occurrence. Casting simulation uses basic physical principles to accurately describe conditions inside the mold. These same physical principle mathematical formulas can also be user defined to both analyze and predict mold conditions that lead to casting defects. The results of the casting simulations included surface strain measurements that accurately predicted veining defects. The simulations integrated both high temperature expansion and surface viscosity measurements to indicate refractory failure. The simulations were also able to describe root causes for dimensional variations in castings. The report details these defects and describes the systematic approach to defining their root causes. The paper includes detailed material characteristics for various aggregates along with their effect on casting quality. Thermo physical characteristics from room temperature to casting temperatures are included. Standardized test castings along with actual production parts are used to optimize and validate casting simulations. The information provided gives the metal caster detailed information on the root causes of common casting defects along with possible strategies for correction. The report also provides material characteristics integral for accurate computer casting simulation. Copyright 2014 World Foundry Organization.


Metal Casting Center

Original Publication Date


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