Theses and Dissertations @ UNI


The development of a Leisure and Life Satisfaction Scale for Outpatient (LLSSOP) leisure activity programs in Iowa


Dissertation (Electronic Copy Not Available)


Quality of life--Iowa--Black Hawk County; Hospitals--Outpatient services--Iowa--Black Hawk County;


The purpose of this study was to develop a scale with foundational concepts surrounding leisure satisfaction, life satisfaction, and quality of life in outpatient leisure activity programs. A questionnaire containing items to measure leisure and life satisfaction for outpatients were handed out to participants in the leisure activity programs based out of a hospital in Central Iowa. Questionnaires were administered through a convenience sampling method to 174 outpatients; 163 (93.6%) of the outpatients completed the questionnaire.

The data were analyzed by scale purification and exploratory factor analysis processes. The results of the scale purification process revealed that 32 items were identified with a reliability of .91. The factor structure was interpreted by the following six dimensionality structures (F1 life satisfaction, 10 items, a=.85; F2 satisfaction with living environment, 6 items, a=.91; F3 leisure and education, 5 items, a=.86; F4 leisure activity and social interaction, 5 items, a=.76; F5 leisure and health, 3 items, a=.84; and F6 transportation and work quality, 3 items, a=.79).

A number of results were identified by the Leisure and Life Satisfaction Scale for Outpatients (LLSSOP). The study indicated leisure and life satisfaction scores were correlated with marital status, social economic status, leisure activity record, and health status. As individuals age, people are more concerned about their satisfaction with access to health services, the health of the physical environment, and opportunities for leisure activities. Secondly, there were also no differences in the mean scale scores by gender. Third, married individuals have a higher mean score on the LLSSOP than widowed and single individuals, and the results also indicated that there are significant differences between single and married individuals on (a) F1 life satisfaction, (b) F2 satisfaction with living environment, and (c) F6 transportation and work quality. Fourth, social economic status and leisure and life satisfaction scores are directionally consistent. Fifth, participants' activity level was not correlated with leisure and life satisfaction scores. Sixth, four factors developed from the LLSSOP can be further explained by Maslow's hierarchy of needs model.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs model may be used in the future as a conceptual model for better understanding outpatient leisure activity programs. Also, it is well understood that to achieve a high level of quality of life, the role of leisure cannot be denied. The findings associated with the new scale design and pilot study have expanded our knowledge and have given useful information on the development of the LLSSOP.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


School of Health, Physical Education, and Leisure Services

First Advisor

Samuel V. Lankford, Committee Co-Chair

Second Advisor

Joseph Wilson, Committee Co-Chair


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Date Original




Electronic copy is not available through UNI ScholarWorks.