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Open Access Dissertation


The purpose of this study was to determine how technical operator turnover rate related to selected working condition factors in Taiwan's printing industry. These factors, as defined in this study, included wages, employee benefits, alternative work schedules, training programs, and gainsharings. If the results of this study showed that technical operator turnover rate was related to these selected factors, then the findings of this study would be helpful to a manager making decisions on turnover management.

The data for this study were collected by using three sets of questionnaires: (a) one designed for personnel directors, (b) one targeted at financial directors, and (c) one aimed at technical operators. These questionnaires were developed by the author and were validated by graphic arts professionals both in the United States and in Taiwan. The population of this study was the medium-size lithographic printing companies in Taiwan, having between 20 and 60 employees. These companies were members of the Taiwan Printing Industry Association between January 1991 and June 1992. The statistical analyses were accomplished by employing the multiple regression analysis at the 0.05 level of significance to determine how technical operator turnover rate related to these selected factors as defined in this study.

The results of this study indicated that there were significant correlations between technical operator turnover rate and the defined working condition factors. The turnover rate could be predicted by using any two specific variables, based on the information gathered from either the management or the operators. The companies with higher wages had better benefits, training programs, gainsharings, and alternative work schedules. At the same time, the technical operators' perceptions of these companies' practice in wages, employee benefits, alternative work schedules, training programs, and gainsharings were also higher. The turnover rates for these companies were lower.

Recommendations for management interested in employee turnover management were (a) be aware of the importance of working conditions, (b) should note the strong correlations between the actual amount of each selected working condition factor as defined in this study and the technical operators' perceptions of each factor, (c) the needs for re-evaluating the employees' working conditions when employee turnover rate begins to increase. Recommendations for further study were (a) extending the selected working condition factors and include the external economic climate, internal size of operation, line of business, personal factors, and psychological motivation factors; (b) enlarging the population needed for further study which may include small, medium, and large size lithographic printing companies and the non-member lithographic printing companies, adding the company size and membership as independent variables; (c) stretching the time frame of future study to 3 years for the purpose of verifying the long-term effects of working conditions on employee turnover rate; (d) repeating this study in different countries and compare these results with the results of this study for the purpose of finding out the effects of different cultures and environments; and (e) conducting this same study at a later date and compare the results of these two studies to see what changes might have occurred through time.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Doctor of Industrial Technology


Department of Industrial Technology

Date Original


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