Dissertations and Theses @ UNI


Dissertation (UNI Access Only)


Knee--Wounds and injuries--Diagnosis; Knee--Models--Evaluation;


Knee injuries, in particular ACL tears, are occurring at an increasing rate. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC; 2008), 80,000 people suffered acute anterior cruciate ligament tears. By 2014, this number had risen to 250,000 (CDC, 2014). The ACL tear is an unfortunate injury, and clinicians need to possess the ability to detect these tears accurately, and the Lachman’s test is the primary screen. Although the occurrence appears to be on the rise, students are not always afforded the opportunity to practice the Lachman’s test on partially or completely torn ACLs.

The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of intact ACLs, partially torn ACLs, and completely torn ACLs accurately detected by orthopedic surgeons and certified athletic trainers using the Sawbones® M.I.S. Knee model. The second purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between profession and number of correct responses, as well as years of experience and correct responses. The third purpose of this study was to identify participants’ perceptions of the Sawbones® M.I.S. Knee in regards to look, feel, ability to perform the Lachman’s test, and usability as a teaching tool.

A total of 14 orthopedic surgeons and athletic trainers with at least three years of professional experience participated in this study. Each participant completed 5 trials of the Lachman’s test on the Sawbones® M.I.S. Knee in various ACL-states for a total of 95 trials. The order of ACL integrity of the Sawbones® M.I.S. Knee was randomized. The total percentage of correct responses among all participants was calculated at 72.6%. Participants correctly identified the intact ACL 25 times, or were accurate 83.3% of the time. Participants correctly identified the partially torn ACL 20 times, or were accurate only 55.6% of the time. Participants correctly identified the completely torn ACL 24 times, or were accurate 82.8% of the time. Professionals with 15-25 years of experience answered correctly significantly more often than did those with only 3-5 years of experience. The group with 8-13 years of experience was not significantly different from the other two groups. There was not a difference in number of correct responses based on profession (orthopedic surgeon v. athletic trainer).

At the conclusion of all 5 trials, participants completed a questionnaire regarding the look and feel of the Sawbones® M.I.S. Knee. For the most part, most orthopedic surgeons and athletic trainers felt the Sawbones® M.I.S. Knee looked like a human knee, however participants were neutral about the Sawbones® M.I.S. Knee feeling like a human knee. The results of this study suggest that the Sawbones® M.I.S. Knee could be used as a teaching tool to simulate intact, partially torn, and completely torn ACLs, and provide students a mechanism to improve these skills. Improvement of practitioner skills could lead to improved patient outcomes.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


School of Health, Physical Education, and Leisure Services


Division of Athletic Training

First Advisor

Windee Weiss, Chair

Date Original


Object Description

1 PDF file (vi, 64 pages)



File Format


Off-Campus Download