Dissertations and Theses @ UNI


Thesis (UNI Access Only)


Barbells--Physiological aspects; Weight lifting--Technique; Posture;


An upright torso is desirable when performing the barbell back squat to ensure safety and carry over to other lifts. The purpose of this thesis was to examine the acute effects of heel elevation and fatigue on torso inclination during the barbell back squat. It was hypothesized that using Weightlifting shoes would result in a more upright torso during a set of 3 barbell back squats at 85% of self-reported one repetition maximum when compared with compliant, non-elevated shoes. A crossover design was used. Participants were guided through a warm-up and squatted in the compliant, non-elevated shoes first, followed by the Weightlifting shoes. The angle of the torso from vertical was found during each repetition of each of the two sets. All repetitions were compared. No significant difference in torso inclination was found between the two shoe conditions, but a significant fatigue effect was found (p =.05). The degree of inclination increased significantly over the course of the 3 repetitions with the first shoe type, while the increase in inclination was mitigated during squats done while wearing the Weightlifting shoes. An acute switch from compliant, non-elevated shoes to Weightlifting shoes may not be enough to change the angle of inclination of the torso, but may help mitigate further inclination during fatigue while squatting. More research will need to be done to determine further interventions to ensure an upright torso during squatting, and to determine the role of Weightlifting shoes in squatting posture.

Year of Submission


Degree Name

Master of Arts


School of Health, Physical Education, and Leisure Services


Division of Physical Education

First Advisor

Robin Lund

Date Original


Object Description

1 PDF file (vi, 55 pages)



File Format


Off-Campus Download