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Document Type

Research

Keywords

facultative xenogamy, plant mating systems, thrips pollination, Verbena

Abstract

Because their flowers can be cross- and/or self-pollinated Verbena stricta, V hastata and V urticifolia are facultatively xenogamous. We suggest the flowers can be cross-pollinated because I) the fruit set of caged plants was substantially lower than that of open-pollinated plants, i.e. pollinators were necessary for typical fruit set and 2) the flowers of each species attracted a diverse array of hymenopteran, dipteran and lepidopteran pollinators that were capable of moving pollen between plants. Self-pollination was low due to the spatial separation of anthers and stigmas and/or an angled corolla that decreased the likelihood of pollen dropping from the anthers onto the stigma. However, the limited ability of flowers to self-pollinate was supplemented by the intrafloral movement of pollen by thrips. In addition, both the pollen-ovule ratios and pollination efficiencies of these species were consistent with those of other facultatively xenogamous species, and the available data were consistent with each species being self-compatible. Finally, we discuss a protocol for distinguishing between self-pollination and the intrafloral movement of pollen by thrips.

Publication Date

December 1990

Journal Title

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science

Volume

97

Issue

4

First Page

178

Last Page

183

Copyright

© Copyright 1990 by the Iowa Academy of Science, Inc.

Language

EN

File Format

application/pdf