larval Rana pipiens, survival, agriculture, field study, enclosures
Amphibians in the upper Midwest use agricultural ponds for breeding. Unfortunately, the risks (both direct and indirect) associated with using these ponds are poorly understood in both amphibian adults and larvae. In order to quantify these risks, we performed a comparison of larval survival rates between agricultural and natural ponds in southeastern Minnesota during the spring and summer of 2001. During this time, larval survival was observed in Rana pipiens tadpoles raised through metamorphosis in enclosures placed in agricultural and natural ponds. In addition, we measured the levels of nutrients commonly linked with agricultural ponds (i.e., ammonia, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen), and whether or not nutrient concentration was associated with larval survival. No differences were detected in nutrient levels or survival of larvae reared in agricultural and natural ponds. Furthermore, neither nutrient levels nor pond type significantly predicted larval survival. Our data were highly variable, making the interpretation of our results difficult. The enclosures used to rear tadpoles were highly effective and can be easily incorporated into future studies.
Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science
© Copyright 2008 by the Iowa Academy of Science, Inc.
Kapfer, Joshua M.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; and Knutson, Melinda G.
"Use of Artificial Enclosures to Determine the Survival of Rana pipiens Larvae in Upper Midwestern Agricultural Ponds,"
The Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS: Vol. 113:
, Article 5.
Available at: http://scholarworks.uni.edu/jias/vol113/iss3/5